Quasi-judicial bodies are organisations with powers to enforce laws and have a judiciary function of deciding upon disputes but aren’t courts. They have a highly specialised function, especially oversee an administrative function, unlike the courts that have the power to supervise over all types of disputes.
Quasi-judicial bodies are conceived to lessen the burden on the judiciary; however, the judgements of these bodies can be appealed to in a court of law.
The Quasi-judicial bodies function on the basis of natural principles of justice or the pre-determined punishments in the violation of law depending upon the gravity of the offence.
The Quasi-judicial bodies also have a mixture of judges who are experts in the law and the administrators who are experts of the function for which the body is constituted for.
Important quasi-judicial bodies in India are as under:
- National Human Rights Commission
- Central Information Commission
- National Green Tribunal
- Competition Commission of India
- State Electricity Regulatory Commission
- Income Tax Appellate Tribunal
- Finance Commission etc.
Finance Commission works as an arbitrator, means to distribute taxes among union and state. Therefore it is called a quasi-judicial body. But it’s recommendations are not obligatory in nature as it is the Parliament which acts as an apex body to hold or decide the government exchequer.
National Human Rights Commission of India, responsible for the protection and promotion of human rights, defined by the Protection of Human Rights Act as “rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed.
The National Green Tribunal for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to the environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property.